# stock2004: A short history of ideo-motor action


tags
Predictive Processing, Brain
source
paper
authors
Stock, A., & Stock, C.
year
2004

The ideo-motor principle has been receiving heightened interest in cognitive psychology, specifically from new empirical evidence suggesting validity to the principle. This paper looks to go through the history of the principle, focusing on British and German branches (started independently) which were synthesized by James’ (1852) The Principles of Psychology. While this work is not directly related to that of predictions and anticipatory behavior, it is an important point of context for understanding the current literature.

The paper is split into two main parts: a synopsis over the history, and a look into future prospects for the principle. I will focus mainly on the former, but will discuss briefly the later.

## The British School

Thomas Laycock and the reflex function of the brain

William B. Carpenter’s ideo-motor reflection

## The German School

Johann F. Herbart’s early conception of ideo-motor action

Herman R. Lotze–Herbart’s successor and critic

Emil Harless and The Apparatus of Will